The capacity of Indonesia’s security apparatus to protect civilians during conflicts in which they
deploy operations leaves much to be desired. The TNI and Polri often fail to protect civilians in
both counterinsurgency operations against the TPNPB’s separatist violence and the policing of
religious conflicts. In the context of Papua’s separatist conflict, the TNI/Polri’s reckless use of
force in the field has directly led to civilian harm –– making them equal enemies to the people as
the TPNPB. Conversely, in the context of Indonesia’s religious conflicts, the Polri’s mostly passive
use of force has enabled mobs’ hate speech to escalate into direct violence and conflict ––
resulting in actual deaths of religious minorities and mass violations of their right to security and
freedom of religion or belief.